World Suicide Preventıon Day

 

The day September 10th is recognized as World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD) worldwide since 2003. WSPD has been suggested by The International Association for Suicide Prevention to reduce the occurrence of suicide by increasing awareness, reducing the stigma about suicide, and encouraging well-informed actions.

WHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT THE SUICIDE?

Suicide is the reason for 1.4% of all deaths. It is among the ten leading causes of death and in this perspective, suicide becoming a significant public health problem. Worldwide, almost 800.000 people die by suicide, and the estimation of death by suicide is about one person in 10.000. In other words, one person dies by suicide every 40 seconds alias every day about 3.000 people.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL DISORDERS AND SUICIDE

Nearly 90% of people who die from suicide have at least one diagnosis of mental disorder at the time of death. Among mental disorders, depression is the most frequently seen diagnosis with its prevalence rate of approximately 90%. In worldwide, nearly 4% of depressive individuals have a risk of death by suicide, and those are more likely to have a history of self-harm and have experienced a sense of hopelessness. Beyond the link between depression and suicide, there are other diagnoses associated with suicide as personality disorder, alcohol and drug misuse, and schizophrenia.

RISK FACTORS FOR SUICIDE

The risk of suicide should be evaluated by considering the following factors;

● marked hopelessness

● a history of previous suicide attempts: around 40–60% of those who die by suicide have made a last attempt

● social isolation

● older age

● depressive disorder, especially with severe mood change with insomnia, anorexia, and weight loss

● alcohol dependence, especially with physical complications or severe social damage

● drug dependence

● schizophrenia, especially among young men with recurrent severe illness, depression, intellectual deterioration, or a history of a previous suicide attempt

● chronic painful illness

● epilepsy

● abnormal personality

PREVENTION OF SUICIDE

The approach of the primary aim depends on better and more accessible psychiatric services, restriction of the means of suicide, encouragement of responsible media reporting, educational programs, improved care for high-risk groups, crisis centers, and telephone hotlines in the approach which the main purpose is to prevent suicide.

Suicide is typically associated with psychiatric disorders and is commonly a preventable situation, so psychiatric evaluation and follow-up is needed in people having suicidal thoughts or attempts.

References:

Philip Cowen, Paul Harrison, and T. B. (2017). Shorter Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (7 edn). Oxford University Press.

https://www.iasp.info

Klonsky ED, May AM, Saffer BY. Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2016;12:307-30. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093204. 

https://archive.org/details/stedmansmedicald00sted_3,

https://www.healthline.com/health/suicide-and-suicidal-behavior

https://uod.ac/ac/institutes-and-centers/ipp-institute/news/

Dr. Ersel Bulu,  Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ömer Faruk Demirel

Department of Psychiatry, Cerrahpaşa School of Medicine